presented by PENNZOIL
The NTT INDYCAR SERIES is North America’s premier open-wheel series with athletes representing over 11 different countries around the world. The diverse schedule is made up of superspeedways, short ovals, road courses and street courses that put athletes physical and mental strength to the test.
INDYCAR is the sanctioning body for the NTT INDYCAR SERIES and Indy Lights Presented by Cooper Tires.
• Drivers compete in cars optimized to reach speeds up to 240 mph, which allows them to cover the length of a football field every second.
• Drivers handle 1,500 lbs. cars two inches off the ground, and often times two inches away from their closest competitor.
• From technology that defies physics, gravity and limits, to drivers that defy odds, risks and fear, the NTT INDYCAR SERIES is different from any other sport.
NTT INDYCAR SERIES athletes are trained to withstand some of the most physically demanding competition in sports.
• On average, a driver’s heart rate reaches 85-95 percent of its capacity during a race and is comparable to the heart rates of marathon runners and long-distance cyclists.
• Drivers experience up to 5 Gs (five times their body weight) on their bodies while in turns and up to 1.5 Gs while accelerating.
• Race car drivers are more than just that, and they don’t just use racing simulators to train. Many drivers’ training regimens include marathons, Iron Mans, cycling, boxing, Jiu-Jitsu and more.
The NTT INDYCAR SERIES races across North America on a variety of racetracks that force drivers to perform at their best each and every week.
• The 22-race NTT INDYCAR SERIES schedule is composed of superspeedways, short ovals, road courses and street courses that offer race fans new experiences and drivers new competition every week.
• A cornerstone of NTT INDYCAR SERIES events are street course races that take place on closed public roads that make for a festival-like atmosphere in a downtown metropolis. Street course races in 2022 are at: St. Petersburg, Long Beach, Belle Isle, Toronto and Nashville.
• Fan experiences are at a premium at all NTT INDYCAR SERIES races. From high speeds of superspeedways, wheel-to-wheel action of short ovals, camping experiences at road courses and the festivals of street races, the NTT INDYCAR SERIES has something for everyone.
What is Indycar?
Anatomy of an Indycar
Pennzoil Tech Inspection
AMR INDYCAR Saftey Team
AMR Saftey Team
Inside the car
INDYCAR APP powered by ntt data
POWERED BY NTT DATA
ANATOMY OF AN INDYCAR
Chevrolet and Honda supply 2.2-liter, twin-turbocharged, direct-injected V-6 engines with approximately 550-700 horsepower for the diverse schedule – from street/road courses to short ovals to superspeedways. The engine houses the oil tower , the exhaust system and the turbochargers.
A safety innovation for enhanced driver cockpit protection that made its race debut during the 2020 NTT INDYCAR SERIES season. The Aeroscreen is a ballistic, canopy-like windscreen anchored by a titanium framework encompassing the cockpit.
Firestone Firehawk racing radials are mounted on 15-inch rims with front tires approximately 11 inches wide and rear tires approximately 15 inches wide. The weight of a car at speed is approximately four times the static weight, so the tire sidewalls have to be strong enough to handle the stress, yet thin enough to dissipate heat. Surface contact with the track for each tire at any time is about the size of a credit card.
The front and rear wing work in conjunction to create aerodynamic downforce and balance between the front and rear of the car. There are two configurations: one for speedways and one for road/street courses and short ovals.
Manufacturer: Dallara Automobili, Italy
Model: Dallara IR-12 chassis (2012-present) with Dallara IR-18 aero kit.
Construction: Monocoque contains cockpit, fuel cell and front suspension; engine is stressed (integral) member of chassis; rear assembly contains bellhousing, gearbox and rear suspension members
Materials: Carbon fiber, kevlar and other composites
Weight: Approximately 1,700 lbs (Road/Street Courses), 1,690 lbs (Short Ovals) and 1,655 lbs (Speedways) (Does not include fuel, driver, drink bottle and contents and driver equivalency weight)
Length: Approximately 201.7 inches
Width: 76.5 inches maximum, 75.5 inches minimum (75.75 inches minimum and 76.75 inches maximum for ovals) measured outside rim to rim.
Height: Approximately 40 inches
Wheelbase: 117.5 to 121.5 inches
• Front: 15 inches diameter, 10 inches wide. Minimum weight: 13.48 pounds
• Rear: 15 inches diameter, 14 inches wide. Minimum weight: 14.7 pounds
Tires: Firestone Firehawk
• Front diameter: 26 inches maximum, 25 inches minimum @ 35 psi
• Rear diameter: 27.5 inches maximum, 26.5 inches minimum @ 35 psi
Brakes: PFC CR90 monobloc aluminum calipers with PFC carbon-carbon brake discs and pads.
Gearbox: XTRAC #1011 gearbox. Six forward gears, one reverse gear, Mega-Line Assisted Gear Shift (paddle-shift)
Fuel Cell: Single, rupture-proof cell, 18.5 U.S. gallons (standard)
Manufacturers: American Honda Motor Co., Inc., Chevrolet
Models: Honda HI21R Indy-V-6, Chevy INDYCAR V6
Type: 2.2-liter (134.25 cubic inches) V-6, twin-turbocharged, Max. bore diameter 95 millimeters
Weight: Minimum weight is 248 pounds
Turbocharging: Twin BorgWarner EFR 7163 turbochargers
RPM: 12,000 maximum (INDYCAR-supplied rev limiter)
Maximum Boost Pressure (above atmosphere): 1300 mbar (Superspeedways); 1500 mbar (short ovals, Road/Street Courses and Indianapolis 500 qualifying); 1650 mbar (Push-To-Pass)
Power: Estimated 550-700 horsepower, depending on turbo boost pressure used at track
Fuel: Speedway E85 fuel (blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline)
Injectors: Maximum two injectors per cylinder, one for direct injection, 300 bar maximum fuel system pressure
ECU (Engine Control Unit): McLaren Applied Technologies TAG 400i
Throttle: Drive-by-wire controlled port throttles
NTT INDYCAR SERIES athletes have a range of different buttons in their cockpit which can be customized into any order that they choose.
* All button positions are customized to suit driver's preferences
1. ANTI-ROLL BARS ADJUSTER: Allows driver to fine-tune the handling of the car by engaging mechanical linkages connected to the front or rear suspension.
2. DASH: Displays warning lights and information the driver needs during the race. That information includes lap times, oil, water and gearbox temperatures and fuel mileage.
3. RPM SHIFT LIGHTS: LED lights that go from green to yellow to red and indicate engine RPM. When the red lights are on, the driver shifts gears.
4. PIT LANE SPEED LIMITER: Used entering pit lane by the driver to activate the engine control program limiting the car’s speed to the pit lane speed limit, which is usually 60 MPH.
5. PUSH-TO-TALK: Activates the microphone in the driver’s helmet so he/she can communicate over the radio.
6. RESET: Used during the race. During a pit stop, the driver pushes this button to reset the fuel reading on the display.
7. FUEL MAP SWITCH: Allows the driver to adjust the fuel mapping of the engine to increase fuel mileage or to increase power. There are a number of settings available, including full rich in which the engine produces maximum power but uses more fuel. There is also a lean setting that uses less fuel but produces less power. During caution periods, the drivers will switch to the leanest mixture to increase fuel economy.
8a and 8b, DASH SCROLL: Allows driver to scroll between the screens of information.
9a and 9b, WEIGHT JACKER: Adjusts the cross weight on the car from left to right, or right to left, depending on the button pushed. The weight jacker allows the driver to make fine-tuning adjustments as the car begins to handle differently during the race because of fuel load.
10 . DRINK: Pushing button activates a pump connected to a bottle on the car that pumps liquid of driver’s choice through a hose installed in the driver’s helmet.
11 . PUSH-TO-PASS: Pushing button activates system that delivers increased power through turbo boost for pre-determined period during race.
No Power Steering – INDYCAR SERIES cars do not feature power steering, which is a system that reduces the effort required to turn a car. No power steering forces athletes to be physically fit and makes these cars difficult to drive.
The single-element wing consists of the mainplanewith no flaps and is used at all speedway events,including the Indianapolis 500. The angle of themainplane will be between 0 and -9 degreesand varies depending on the track. The wing isdesigned to add downforce, but limits the car’sspeed by adding drag. In 2022, this wing will beused at Indianapolis and Texas.
SPEEDWAY REAR WING
Single-element wing, consisting of a mainplaneand end fence. Wing is used to trim and balancethe car. The NTT INDYCAR SERIES’ minimum wingangles vary by track with a minimum angle of-1.50 degrees.
SPEEDWAY FRONT WING
The multi-element wing consists of the mainplanewith a vertically stacked flap. The angle of themainplane is mandated at 0 degrees, plus-orminus.5 degrees events, while the angle of thetop flap varies depending on the track. The wingis designed to provide maximum downforce, butlimits the car’s speed by adding maximum drag.This wing will be used at ovals shorter than 1.5miles long and all road/street courses.
SHORT OVAL/ROAD COURSE REAR WING
Multiple element wing consists of a mainplane,upper and lower flaps and end fence. Wing isdesigned to add downforce, but limits the car’sspeed by adding drag. The angle of the mainplaneis mandated at 1.92 degrees, plus-or-minus.3 degrees, while the angle of the flaps variesdepending on the track. The NTT INDYCAR SERIES’minimum wing angles vary by track. This wing willbe used at ovals shorter than 1.5 miles long and allroad/street courses.
SHORT OVAL/ROAD COURSE FRONT WING
SHORT OVAL/ROAD WINGS
In 2012, Chevrolet made a triumphant return to the NTT INDYCAR SERIES after a seven-year hiatus. Over the past seven seasons, the Chevrolet IndyCar 2.2-liter, V-6 direct-injected, twin-turbocharged engine has amassed 73 victories, 83 pole positions, three Indianapolis 500 wins, five driver championships and six consecutive manufacturer titles from 2012-17.
Indy car racing is in Chevrolet’s DNA. A legacy of racing competition runs deep in Chevrolet’s 100-plus-year history, dating to co-founder Louis Chevrolet’s passion for racing automobiles. In the early days, the three Chevrolet brothers – Louis, Arthur and Gaston – drove in the Indianapolis 500, and the state-of-the-art machines they designed and built won back-to-back races in 1920 and 1921. Gaston won as the driver in 1920 and Louis as the owner in 1921.
Fundamental elements in the 2021 Chevrolet engine package are direct injection and turbocharging, which are key technologies in several powerful and fuel-efficient Chevrolet production cars and trucks. Chevrolet uses the knowledge gained from its motorsports programs to build better cars, trucks, sport utility vehicles and powertrains. Technology transfer is a key component to Chevrolet’s racing programs.
The 2021 NTT INDYCAR SERIES season marks the fourth season of the Dallara IR-12 chassis featuring a more aggressive, sleeker universal aerodynamic body kit (UAK-18). With a full season of competition experience with the package, Chevrolet powered teams and drivers are looking forward to another successful campaign.
The Chevrolet teams and drivers will again have an opportunity to bring home the hardware in the shadows of Chevrolet’s world headquarters as Chevrolet will once again sponsor the Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix doubleheader the weekend of May 31 – June 2, 2019.
A singularly iconic brand in American motorsports, Chevrolet is the winningest manufacturer in motorsports. In addition to the accomplishments in the NTT INDYCAR SERIES since 2012, the Bowtie Brand has won the NASCAR Cup Series manufacturers championship 39 times and is the most successful name in that series’ history. Chevrolet’s Corvette Racing has taken eight class trophies at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 2018 Chevrolet won the NHRA Manufacturer title for a record 23rd time. Previous Indy car history saw Chevrolet-branded V-8 racing engine win the Indy 500 seven times between 1988 and 2002.
As Chevrolet continues to define itself as a 21st century global automotive leader, motorsports remain integral to the plan.
Founded in 1911 in Detroit, Chevrolet is one of the world’s largest car brands, doing business in more than 100 countries and selling more than 4.0 million cars and trucks a year. Chevrolet provides customers with fuel-efficient vehicles that feature engaging performance, design that makes the heart beat, passive and active safety features and easy-to-use technology, all at a value. More information on Chevrolet models can be found at www.chevrolet.com.
Founded in 1993, Honda Performance Development (HPD), a wholly owned subsidiary of American Honda, is the technical operations center for Honda’s high-performance racing engines, including the Honda HI19TT Indy V6 engine utilized in NTT INDYCAR SERIES competition.
HPD began Indy car competition in 1994, winning its first race at New Hampshire Motor Speedway in 1995 and first manufacturers’ and drivers’ championships in 1996. Three more manufacturers’ titles (1998, 1999 and 2001) followed, along with six consecutive drivers’ crowns (1996-2001) and a total of 65 race victories under CART sanction.
HPD entered the NTT INDYCAR SERIES in 2003 and again quickly established its competitiveness against other major manufacturers. From 2003-05, Honda teams and drivers scored 28 victories in 49 races, including the 2004 and 2005 Indianapolis 500s. Honda won the NTT INDYCAR SERIES manufacturers’ championship in 2004 and 2005, while Honda-powered drivers Tony Kanaan and Dan Wheldon won the drivers’ championship in 2004 and 2005, respectively.
For 2006, Honda became the single engine supplier to the NTT INDYCAR SERIES, and the company continued in that role through 2011. Throughout Honda’s six seasons as the sole supplier, a total of 98 drivers completed 1,188,376 miles of practice, qualifying and racing with only six race-day engine failures. No race-day failures were reported for the entire 2008, 2010 and 2011 race seasons.
For six consecutive years, from 2006-11, Honda powered the entire 33-car starting field at the Indianapolis 500. And for six years in a row – and the first six times in Indy 500 history – there was not a single engine-related retirement in the event.
Manufacturer competition returned to INDYCAR in 2012 with Honda-powered drivers and teams scoring four victories, highlighted by Dario Franchitti’s third triumph at the Indianapolis 500; Alexander Rossi’s victory at the historic 100th running in 2016; and Takuma Sato’s popular victory in the 2017 “500”.
In 2018, Honda recorded the company’s seventh Manufacturers’ Championship, scoring 11 race wins from 17 events. Honda-powered Scott Dixon won his fifth drivers’ title, and Robert Wickens won series Rookie of the Year honors.
In the last quarter century, Honda has 337 Indy car victories in 429 races, including 12 wins at the Indianapolis 500 and 16 drivers’ championships.
Today, HPD operates out of a multilevel, 123,000-square-foot facility in Santa Clarita, Calif., north of Los Angeles. There, the company and its nearly 150 associates coordinate Honda’s participation in NTT INDYCAR SERIES racing and the many other racing programs conducted by American Honda, ranging from sports prototype competition in the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship all the way to entry-level categories such as karting and quarter-midget racing.
HPD’s headquarters includes: engine design facilities; comprehensive engine R&D operations; prototype and production parts manufacturing; race-engine preparation and rebuilding areas; a material analysis laboratory; quality-control inspection areas; five engine dynamometer test cells; a machine shop; an electronics lab; a parts center; administrative offices and multiple meeting/conference rooms.
David Salters was named president of Honda Performance Development in December 2020 following the retirement of Ted Klaus, who oversaw two of Honda’s three consecutive manufacturer’s crowns. Previously, HPD was headed by Thomas Elliott (1993-2002), Yasuhiro Wada (2003-2004), Robert Clarke (2005-2007), Erik Berkman (2008-2012), Art St. Cyr (2012-2018) and Klaus (2019-2020).
An NTT IndyCar Series transporter serves as a team’s “race shop on wheels,” crucial to the at-track activity of every team. These big rigs not only transport race cars and equipment but convert into a mobile race shop with high-tech work areas and team headquarters, housing everything needed for a successful race weekend.
Meeting Area (RED): Utilized for driver debriefings, race strategy sessions, engineering meetings and driver interviews.
Overhead Storage (YELLOW): Transportation and storage area for the team’s primary car and back-up or “T” car. Cars are loaded and unloaded from overhead storage using a lift. Awnings or canopies can be attached to the exterior overhead storage area, creating a make-shift garage area at tracks with limited or temporary space such as street courses.
Lower Storage Area (BLUE): This travel storage area converts into a workspace at-track.
This transporter is just an example of what you may find in the NTT IndyCar Series paddock. Teams modify this basic design to fit their at-track needs.
Dallara, the exclusive chassis supplier to the NTT INDYCAR SERIES, was founded by its current president, Giampaolo Dallara, in 1972. After working for Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini and De Tomaso, Dallara wanted to continue pursuing his dream of working in the world of race cars.
He established “Dallara Automobili da Competizione” in his hometown of Varano de Melegari, Parma, in the Italian Motor Valley. Since its establishment, Dallara has become world renowned for its specialty in designing, manufacturing and developing race cars.
The company’s success can be credited to its achievements in Formula 3, first in Italy and then around the world. Its American acclaim can be traced to its involvement since 1997 with the NTT INDYCAR SERIES, its consultancy for major manufacturers and its continued focus on technology and innovation. Entering the 2020 season, Dallara cars had won more than 300 races in NTT INDYCAR SERIES competition.
Dallara prides itself in searching for the highest standards of quality, performance, safety and customer support. Dallara’s core competencies include: design using carbon fiber composite materials, aerodynamics by means of wind tunnel and CFD (computational fluid dynamics), vehicle dynamics through simulations and testing, and the fast and flexible production of high-quality prototypes.
Every race weekend, approximately 300 Dallara cars run on tracks around the world in various formulas. The company is present in all Formula 3 championships and is the sole supplier of cars for the NTT INDYCAR SERIES, Indy Lights presented by Cooper Tires (the top level of the Road to Indy presented by Cooper Tires developmental ladder), Formula 2, FIA Formula 3, Super Formula and Renault Sport Series. Dallara also makes cars for the Formula E championship, World Endurance Series (WEC), European Le Mans Series (ELMS) and the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship and instructional leagues.
In recent years, the engineering activities have expanded, both for race cars and high-performance road cars. Dallara provides consultancy services to some of the world’s most important car companies including, Alfa Romeo, Audi, Bugatti, Ferrari, KTM, Lamborghini, Maserati and many others that cannot be mentioned due to confidentiality agreements.
Dallara cemented its commitment to INDYCAR in July 2012 when it opened its American headquarters and engineering center in Speedway, Indiana, a short distance from the legendary Indianapolis Motor Speedway, home of the Indianapolis 500. The Dallara IndyCar Factory is a multifunctional center for research and development, where the current NTT INDYCAR SERIES IR-12 chassis and IR-18 aerokit and Indy Lights IL-15 chassis are produced and assembled. The Dallara IndyCar Factory houses an “edutainment” center, where visitors can learn about the history of Dallara and its cars and discover the secrets of the design and manufacture of a modern Indy car.
Dallara partnered with state universities, as well as with several school districts in the Indianapolis area, to make scientific subjects attractive to students through the use of motorsports. The basic idea is inspired by STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics), an existing American initiative which promotes science and technology subjects in U.S. schools. Dallara makes part of its museum available to the STEM program focused on motorsport (M-STEM). This special area demonstrates the relationship between Indy car development and production and basic concepts of science and mathematics.
Champions have relied on durable, dependable Firestone tires for more than a century. Harvey Firestone, founder of the Firestone Tire & Rubber Company, was a sports marketing pioneer who saw racing as a powerful proving ground and promotional platform for his tire technology. Through that vision, Firestone tires have been part of world-class motorsports events across the globe, and racing has become a core part of the brand’s DNA.
The Firestone brand’s storied heritage in racing began May 30, 1911, when Ray Harroun’s Firestone-equipped Marmon Wasp won the inaugural Indianapolis 500® Mile Race. In all, Firestone tires have won “The Greatest Spectacle in Racing” 69 times – more than double all other tire manufacturers combined. This includes Mario Andretti’s historic 1969 Indy 500 win, which celebrates its 50th anniversary this year.
Firestone merged with Bridgestone in 1988, and in 1995 the Firestone brand reentered Indy car competition following a twodecade hiatus. Now in its 20th consecutive season as the exclusive tire supplier of the NTT INDYCAR SERIES, Firestone is a key innovation and marketing partner for the fastest and most versatile racing series in the world. The relationship was strengthened in February 2019 with the announcement of a five-year partnership extension for the Firestone brand through 2025, as well as the announcement of plans to build a new, stateof- the-art Firestone race tire manufacturing facility in Akron, Ohio.
Led by Cara Adams, the first female chief engineer in motorsports history, the Firestone Race Tire Engineering team and more than 50 expert tire builders will produce more than 26,000 Firestone Firehawk race tires for the 2019 season, including more than 5,000 tires for use at the Indy 500 alone. In all, Firestone Racing will design, develop, and deliver more than 60 different race tire specifications to meet the extensive and varying demands of the 16 unique oval, road and street course venues in the NTT INDYCAR SERIES schedule.
This time-tested dedication to improving race tire technology also drives advancements in passenger tire technology that is available to everyday drivers. The Firestone Race Tire Engineering team works side by side with passenger tire engineers at the Bridgestone Americas Technical Center in Akron, leveraging lessons from racing to improve the products featured across the Bridgestone and Firestone passenger tire lines. The collaborative relationship has also worked in reverse, as passenger tire engineers played an important role in developing the tread pattern for the new Firestone Firehawk rain race tire that was introduced last season.
The Firestone brand’s role as a key marketing partner for the NTT INDYCAR SERIES literally goes from start to finish, beginning with the second race of the 2021 season, the Firestone Grand Prix of St. Petersburg and the season-penultimate event, the Firestone Grand Prix of Monterey. Firestone leverages multiple channels of activation throughout the season, including fan engagement at races, sponsorships and signage at multiple venues, social and digital media programs, traditional media, and hospitality. A pillar of the program is the interactive at-track Firestone Fan Experience, which includes unique, hands-on activities that tell the Firestone story and educate fans about its tires.
You can keep up with Firestone Racing by following the team on Twitter and Instagram @FirestoneRacing.
During the safety inspection, the inspector assures that all the racing cars match the safety demands of the NTT INDYCAR SERIES. The equipment inspected during this session are:
• Drivers Helmets
• Drivers Head Restraint System
• Drivers Safety Belt Restraint System
• Driver's Seat
• Chassis Headrest
• Steering Wheel
• Fire Extinguisher System
• Impact Recorders
• Yellow Light System
The is the first station of the Pennzoil Technical Inspection. General measurements of the car are made for uniformity between entrants:
Radiator Inlet Shutters
Engine Cover profile
The final station for inspection is the tech pad. On the tech pad, measurements are made that require the car to be level and sitting on a common reference plane for measuring:
underwing measurements configurations
Overall WIDTHS & PROFILES
MAINPLANE MEASUREMENTS & ANGLES
ROAD/STREET/SHORT OVAL CONFIGURATION
(Including) Downforce Tunnels, SideWall
short oval configuration
PENNZOIL TECH INSPECTION
Suspension Wheel/Wing Energy Management System (SWEMS) restraints are attached at multiple points to a car’s chassis, suspension and wings to minimize the possibility of parts becoming detached during high-speed accidents.
Located on each wheel assembly, the rear wing and nose cone, each restraint, with their high-tensile Zylon material and wound construction, has a break load of 100 kilonewtons (kN), which equals 22,480 pound-force. INDYCAR introduced SWEMS in 1999.
Visual inspection of the restraints is part of the initial safety inspection on event weekends.
If any of the four corners sustain an impact, the rulebook mandates changing the SWEMS on the affected corner.
Suspension Wheel/Energy Management System
AMR INDYCAR Safety Team
INDYCAR and its AMR INDYCAR Safety Team are an industryleader in motorsports safety and have been instrumental inrevolutionizing the sport.Under the supervision of Dr. Geoffrey Billows, INDYCAR’smedical director, and Tim Baughman, INDYCAR’s senior directorof track safety and medical services, the AMR INDYCAR SafetyTeam continually evaluates the latest equipment and its ontrackprocedures and protocols.The AMR INDYCAR Safety Team consists of approximately 40safety personnel with a minimum of 18 attending each event– a trauma physician, an orthopedic physician (for ovals), threeparamedics, 14 firefighters/EMTs and two registered nurses.Team personnel have an average of 20 years of experience intheir respective fields.“About 75 percent of our team is comprised of civil servants who are officers in their departments, such ascaptains, lieutenants or fire chiefs, which means they have vast amounts of experience managing people andmanaging ground scenes and incident command,” Baughman said. “Many have bachelor’s degrees in firescience and we also have people who have gone beyond the scope of their local fire departments by beinginvolved with disaster task force teams.”The team travels with four safety vehicles equipped with the most sophisticated Holmatro rescue equipmentand state-of-the-art technology. The AMR INDYCAR Safety Team works in conjunction with and coordinatesthe safety personnel staffing at each venue, including firefighters, ambulance and tow-truck providers andtrack maintenance crews.
PM - Paramedic
LD - League Doctor
F1 - Firefigher 1
F2 - Firefighter 2
LC - Crew Leader
TD - Track Medical Director
The team on the first truck to arrive at the scene is responsible for the driver and cleanup at the scene.
Response Vehicle - Assits with care for the driver.
The team on the second truck begins cleanup at the area of impact and checks the racing surface and wall, and ensures the track is safe for racing to resume. The truck's medic also checks the specator side of the fence for any issues.
The team on Safety 3 joins the cleanup process at the scene then makes a complete lap around the track to check for fluids and debris.
AMR Safety Team Equipment
Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab
• Yellow light system
• Digital 360-degree windshield video cameras. These cameras begin recording automatically when the yellow light system is activated. They record the events of the incident, such as work performed at the impact point, crash scene, etc., and can be viewed and critiqued by safety team members upon returning to their positions after the incident response is complete. Beginning in 2015, members of the safety team and race control can manipulate the 360-degree cameras remotely to better view an incident scene.
• Rear-facing cameras to improve visibility.
• Recoil tow strap for towing cars.
• Emergency strobe lights.
• Holmatro hydraulic rescue tools.
• Specialized spinal immobilization "shoehorn" backboards (2) with pre-attached straps for driver extrication. They also carry adjustable cervical collars for stabilizing the neck.
• Basic life support medical equipment for driver stabilization, airway, bleeding and fractures.
Racecar Recovery Equipment:
• Specialized tow straps for pulling cars out of tire barriers or sand traps (road and street courses).
• Push brooms (2) for "scrubbing" in oil dry and clearing it from the racetrack.
• Metal parts buckets for picking up crash debris.
SAFETY 3, Clean up truck
Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab
No Holmatro hydraulic rescue tools.
In addition to the clean-up equipment carried on Safety 1 and 2, it is equipped with:
• An oil dry hopper that holds 300 pounds of oil dry for spreading over large areas.
• Hydraulic-operated broom for scrubbing in oil dry over long distances.
• "Buffalo Blower" for blowing oil dry and debris off the racetrack. It is also used to assist in drying the racetrack.
• Safety 1, 2 and 3 all carry a four-man crew: a crew leader (driver), paramedic and two firefighters.
• All are career firefighter/paramedics with extensive rescue experience in public service and motorsports.
• Satellite TV
• Wireless laptop computer to download crash data; track doctors can receive this info even before arriving at the medical center
• Yellow light system
•Medical equipment for driver stabilization
• INDYCAR Medical Director
• Track Doctor (ER specialist)
• Orthopedic Specialist
• Professional Driver, with a racing background for all events.
Communication of an on-track incident has advanced since the days when a lone yellow flag would signify the change in track condition to drivers. Today, NTT INDYCAR SERIES competitors have multiple indicators of caution communicating the continually changing track condition during a race
Indicators of Caution
As soon as a caution occurs, race control radios the change in track condition to team members and sanctioning body personnel. Immediately, a team’s spotter on top of the grandstand or race strategist on the pit box relays the information to the driver via two-way radio.
A flagman located on the starter’s stand displays various flags to communicate the track condition to the drivers. As soon as a caution is called by race control, the flagman waves the yellow flag. Corner workers at road/street course events also display the yellow flag during a full-course or local caution (waving flag at a particular corner).
All cars are required to carry INDYCAR’s track condition radio system. When a full-course caution occurs, race control sends a signal to the car that activates a yellow light in the cockpit alerting the driver to the track condition. Additionally, each spotter on top of the grandstand carries a pager connected to the track condition radio system. When the light system is activated, the spotters’ pagers vibrate, indicating a caution.
Each track provides green and/or yellow lights around the outside retaining walls adjacent to the catch fence. When a caution occurs, race control activates a change in lights (green lights off and/or yellow lights flashing) at every location around the track.
A road-course rain light is mounted on the attenuator located on the rear of each car. The rain light doubles as a safety light at all tracks. Similar to track condition radio, race control activates the flashing safety light on the attenuator, indicating a caution so that drivers can see the flashing attenuator light on cars in front of them.
On May 1, 2002, INDYCAR founder Tony George announced a safety innovation that would revolutionize the sport of automobile racing. George announced that the SAFER (Steel and Foam Energy Reduction) Barrier would be installed in all four turns of Indianapolis Motor Speedway in time for practice for that year’s Indianapolis 500-Mile Race.
Under development by INDYCAR and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln’s Midwest Roadside Safety Facility since 1998, the SAFER Barrier was designed to reduce the severity of impacts by NTT INDYCAR SERIES cars, one of the most effective safety measures taken in the racing industry in recent years.
The SAFER Barrier is constructed in 20-foot modules, with each module consisting of four rectangular steel tubes, welded together, to form a unified element. The modules are connected with four internal steel splices. Bundles of 2-inch-thick sheets of extruded, closed-cell polystyrene are placed between the concrete wall and the steel tubing modules.
Version 2 of the SAFER system was developed during 2002 and 2003 by the same team that developed the original SAFER system.In response to many detailed studies of the original SAFER Barrier, Version 2 incorporated improvements that further minimize damage to the system upon impact, allowed one configuration to be used for both open-wheel and stock cars and allowed SAFER Barriers to be installed on virtually any racetrack geometry, regardless of corner radius or banking. Since late 2003, Version 2 has become the standard and has been installed on a majority of the racetracks hosting open-wheel and stock-car racing
All ovals on the 2020 NTT INDYCAR SERIES schedule have the system installed in all four turns. Iowa Speedway has the Alternative Backup Structure for the SAFER Barrier in its track design. On other tracks, the system has been “retro-fitted” to the existing concrete walls (mainly in the turns) of racetracks. Iowa Speedway was the first track to have the SAFER Barrier system around the entire perimeter of the track. It’s also the first to install the new system, which does not have a concrete wall behind it
Awards & Recognitions:
Since its introduction, the SAFER Barrier has earned four major accolades:
• Autosport Pioneering and Innovation Award (2004)
• Louis Schwitzer Award (2002)
• SEMA Motorsports Engineering Award (2002)
• GM Racing Pioneer Award (2002)
Race car drivers are professional athletes, each with an individual trainingprogram designed to prepare their bodies and minds for the rigors ofcompeting on the racetrack at speeds in excess of 240 mph.Because their safety and livelihood are directly impacted by their physicaland mental fitness, drivers take their training seriously.
DRIVERS AS ATHLETES
Driver Safety Equipment
Nomex is high-temperature-resistant, man-made fiber that will not sustain combustion in air and will not melt in the presences of flames. When exposed to intense heat, Nomex carbonizes and becomes thicker to provide a protective barrier between the heat source and the skin.
1. Head and neck
Safety helmets worn by NTT INDYCAR Series drivers are designed specifically for automobile racing and meet or exceed the FIA 8860-2010 or FIA 8860-2018 certifications. Helmets are spherical in shape and made of a carbon fiber shell, lined with energy-absorbing foam and Nomex padding. INDYCAR mandates all drivers use an approved head restraint that meets or exceeds FIA 8858-2010 certifications.
Also knownas a balaclava, made of Nomex material and worn under the driver's helmet.
Gloves are made of Nomex and typically feature leather palms for added grip.
Driving shoes typically consist of a leather or suede outer layer, with foam or padding between the out layer and inner Nomex lining. Rubber or polyurethane soles provide added grip. Drivers also wear fire-resistant socks.
Drivers must wear a fire-resistant, one-piece uniform conforming to SFI 3.2A/5 or FIA 8856-2000 specifications. The specifications is based on the garment's capability to provide exposure to direct flame and radiant heat before the driver incurs second-degree burns. Drivers also wear long-sleeve Nomex tops and full-length Nomex bottoms under their firesuit.
1. OUTER SHELL: Designed to dispense energy in an impact and protect from debris penetration. The shell is made of an ultra-light weave of carbon fiber. It’s hand-formed in a two-piece mold, then trimmed by a computer-controlled machine.
2. NOMEX LINING: Designed to transfer heat away from a driver’s head, while absorbing sweat. The thin fireproof layer is made of Nomex and rayon and covers the inside of the entire helmet.
3. HELMET REMOVAL SYSTEM: A small airbag that can be inflated through a valve by safety crews allows the helmet to be lifted from the driver without neck strain. It was mandated by INDYCAR in 2003.
4. AERODYNAMIC PLATE: A small piece of outer shell attached to divert air into a gap beneath it to create downforce to stabilize the helmet. Air flow across the top of the helmet is directed into the engine air intake, located behind the driver’s head.
5. AERO WICKERS: Thin strips of rubber attached to each side and at the back of the helmet to prevent the driver’s head from being “buffeted” by 200 mph air resistance. It also prevents air backdraft from trying to lift off the helmet. The shape is adjusted for each track.
6. INNER LINER: Made of a single molded piece of high-tech, lightweight bead foam, this is the helmet’s skeleton and the primary protective layer in an impact. It spreads both interior and exterior impact forces across a large area to protect the driver.
7. FIT PAD: Foam that surrounds the sides and back of the head, glued to the inner liner. Thickness adapted to head size.
8. EARPIECE: Allows the driver to hear in-car radio communication from the spotter and pits and protects the driver’s ears from engine noise. Also included is the INDYCAR Earpiece Sensor System, which measures the forces a driver’s head experiences in an impact.
9. NECK PAD: A strip of plush, opencell foam attached to the inner liner at the base of the helmet. Like the fit pad, it is custom-made to ensure a tight fit around the neck. It also helps repel flames from the head and face.
10. CHIN STRAP: Kevlar strap secures the helmet to the driver’s head. It is replaced after minor accidents.
11. LID BALANCE: A part of the outer shell, it is a crucial aerodynamic aid to stop the driver’s head from being blown back at speed.
12. FRONTAL LINER: Extension of the main foam bead lining to protect the face in impacts. A microphone is imbedded into the foam in front of the driver’s mouth for in-car radio communication. Also houses the tube connected to the drink bottle installed in the front of the car.
13. VISOR: Able to repel fire for at least 45 seconds, the Lexan face shield is specially coated on the inside to prevent fogging. On the outside, three to five transparent, thin plastic "tear offs" allow the driver to periodically refresh his/her view.
14. VISOR STRIP: A reinforcement panel made of carbon fiber and Zylon that runs across the top of the visor and the portion of the helmet exterior above the visor, helping protect the driver's head from debris impacts.
The INDYCAR Earpiece Sensor System
The INDYCAR Earpiece Sensor System is designed to measure dynamic forces applied to a driver’s head during an impact.
The system utilizes accelerometers, small sensors integrated into the earpiece that measure changes in linear force. Each earpiece is fitted with three accelerometers to sense and measure vertical, lateral and longitudinal G-forces on the driver’s head at the moment of impact. With vibration or movement, the accelerometer puts out voltage and the earpiece sensor system interprets the changes in voltage as changes in the car’s direction or velocity. By measuring the amplitude of the voltage, G-load at the time of the incident can be measured.
Following a crash, information from the earpiece is downloaded through wires to the Accident Data Recorder, also known as the black box. After an accident, the information is transferred to a laptop and analyzed. This data gathered from the earpiece is utilized to evaluate how safety improvements like shoulder harnesses, seatbelts and head and neck restraints help prevent head and neck injuries.
The INDYCAR Earpiece Sensor System has been worn by all NTT IndyCar Series drivers since 2003 and Indy Lights drivers since 2004. Not only is the earpiece used to record crash data, it blocks exterior sound and wind from the driver’s ears and allows teams to conduct pit-to-car audio. The earpieces have been manufactured in-house by INDYCAR since 2007.
NTT INDYCAR Series & Air Force Research Laboratory
The NTT INDYCAR Series teamed with Air Force Research Laboratory engineers at Wright-Patterson Air Force base in Ohio to share crash impact and injury data gathered from the INDYCAR Earpiece Sensor System.
Air Force engineers are collecting the data to develop safer helmets, harnesses and ejection seats for military pilots during all phases of flight. Researchers at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base use human subjects in their labs, but can't duplicate the gravitational forces that NTT INDYCAR Series drivers endure. Researchers are trying to help develop an ejection seat and harness for the Joint Strike Fighter, the Pentagon's next generation, all-purpose fighter jet. Pilots who eject from such a plane can buffeted by a 700 mph blast of wind and then get jolted when their parachute opens. The battering can injure their heads, necks and upper bodies. Military researchers have been amazed at how drivers endure such great gravitational forces without suffering serious head injuries.
Research is also shared with the commercial automotive industry through conferences and universities, which can lead to safety policy changes for auto manufacturers.
The Head Restraint is a required safety item for all drivers in INDYCAR. It reduces the likelihood of head and/or neck injuries, such as a basilar skull fracture, in the event of a on-track collision.
are attached from the collar to both sides of the driver's helmet.
is set behind the nape of the neck. NTT INDYCAR Series drivers use an extension that reduces driver impact in a rear-end collision. It attaches to the top of the collar and allows the driver's head and neck to slide unobstructed against the headrest
2. Shoulder harness
is secured on top of the arms.
Facing Extreme Conditions
NTT INDYCAR SERIES driver Tony Kanaan was evaluated at the Gatorade Sports Science Institute in Barrington, Illinois, for a “sweat test.” Kanaan, considered an endurance athlete because of the timefocused on his physical activity, was evaluated for his sweat loss, sweat rate, sweat electrolyte content, body weight change (he was weighed before and afterward) and drinking behavior.
Such information could help Kanaan – and other drivers – improve hydration, avoid dehydration and supportmental and physical performance on the track.
Why? Because NTT INDYCAR SERIES drivers are subject to extreme forces and conditions while in a racecar. Physical conditioning is critical as a means of adapting to the effects that racing has on the humanbody.
Here are some of the factors that affect the human body during race events:
1. NECK AND BODY
Lateral G-force loads of up to 5 Gs are generated by cornering and between 0.7 and 1.5 Gs under acceleration depending on the track. The strain and fatigue placed on a driver’s neck can be compared to driving a passenger car with a 40- to 50-pound weight attached to your head.
Vibrations during a race can cause blurred vision and hasten eye fatigue. A top driver’s depth perception is comparable to that of an NFL quarterback or NHL goaltender. Drivers must also be able to discern and analyze numerous factors, including the closing speed of approaching cars, the distance from other cars and the identity of their competitors.
Hydration is critical to every function in the body, especially during competition. Water comprises 60 percent to 65 percent of an athlete’s body weight. During a typical race, NTT INDYCAR SERIES drivers may lose several pints of water, which could lead to dehydration. Teams have implemented a drink system that pumps fluids from an onboard drink bottle to the driver’s helmet through a plastic tube. Drivers also begin proper hydration techniques days before each event.
4. HEART RATE
The heart rate of a driver reaches 85 percent to 95 percent of capacity during a race. This translates to 150-200 beats per minute and can be compared to heart rates of marathon runners, triathletes or long-distance cyclists.
5. BODY TEMPERATURE
While driving an NTT INDYCAR SERIES car, drivers can face temperatures of more than 100 degrees while wearing layers of protective clothing. The heat, combined with the effects of G-forces, vibration and other factors can result in a driver’s body temperature reaching 103 degrees Fahrenheit during a race.
On Track Competition
PROCEDURES AND RULES
NTT INDYCAR SERIES Championship Points
The NTT INDYCAR SERIES recognizes entrant, driver and manufacturer champions. To facilitate competition for these championships, INDYCAR calculates and publicizes complete rankings of all participating entrants, drivers and manufacturers following each race.
The series has established the following system under which eligible entrants and drivers may accumulate points:
• Entrant points will be credited only to an entrant holding a valid entrant’s license at the time of the event, competing with a properly registered car and displaying the assigned car number throughout any event.
• Driver points will be credited only to drivers holding a valid driver’s license at the time of the event.
• In the event the starting driver receives relief during the running of a race, the starting driver will receive the points for that car for the race. The relief driver will not receive any points for driving that car.
• If a Car participates in practice and/or Qualifications, but is unable to start a Race, the Driver and/or the Entrant shall receive half of the points the Car would have received for the Race had the Car started the Race.
At the close of the season, the entrant and driver with the highest number of ranking points respectively shall be declared the NTT INDYCAR SERIES champion.
In the case of a tie, INDYCAR will determine the champion based on the most first-place finishes. If there is still a tie, INDYCAR will determine the champion by the most second-place finishes, then the most thirdplace finishes, etc., until a champion is determined. INDYCAR will apply the same system to other ties in the rankings at the close of the season and at any other time during the season.
Double points for each race finishing position will be awarded at one race in 2020 – the Indianapolis 500 Mile Race.
Also, entrant and driver points will be awarded for Indianapolis 500 qualifying based on final qualifying results as follows:
• The fastest qualifying entrant and driver (pole sitter) will receive 9 points, second fastest will receive 8 points and points awarded will decrease by one-point increments down to ninth fastest (1 point).
Engine manufacturer championship points will be awarded to the top two finishing full-season entrants for each manufacturer in a race using the same points structure as used for entrant and driver points (50 points for first place, 40 for second, etc.).
Also, five points will be awarded to the race-winning manufacturer while one point is awarded to the engine manufacturer that qualifies in the pole position at all races except the Indianapolis 500. Two points will be awarded to the engine manufacturer that wins the pole position at the Indianapolis 500 and one point will be awarded the engine manufacturer that is the fastest on the first day of Indianapolis 500 qualifying.
Additional bonus points are available to manufacturers for an engine that meets the 2,000-mile threshold during the Indianapolis 500. A one-time bonus equal the number of manufacturer points scored in the Indianapolis 500 will be awarded.
Entrant and Driver Points Championships
Manufacturer Points Championship
The NTT P1 Championship is an honor given to the driver who gets the most out of P1 Award wins throughout the season. After each NTT INDYCAR SERIES event, the driver points for the top qualifier will be placed into a special points tally. At the end of the season, the driver that best leverages their NTT P1 Awards – and earns the most P1 Championship points – will earn the trophy.
NTT P1 Championship points are based on points for the NTT INDYCAR SERIES Drivers’ Championship, but can only be earned by the P1 winner at each event.
NTT P1 Championship
2022: Will Power
2021: Josef Newgarden
2020: Will Power
2019: Simon Pagenaud
2018: Josef Newgarden
2017: Will Power
2016: Simon Pagenaud
2015: Will Power
2014: Will Power
The Rookie of the Year Award is presented to the top-finishing rookie in the NTT INDYCAR SERIES point standings. Winner also receives a $50,000 bonus.
The Rookie of the Year Award is based on points for the NTT INDYCAR SERIES Drivers' Championship earned at each event.
2022: Christian Lundgaard
2021: Scott McLaughlin
2020: Rinus VeeKay
2019: Felix Rosenqvist
2018: Robert Wickens
2017: Ed Jones
2016: Alexander Rossi
2015: Gabby Chaves
2014: Carlos Munoz
Rookie of the Year Award
Engine Manufacturer Championship
1. START (GREEN): Signals the start of a race, practice session or qualifying attempt.
2. FINISH (CHECKERS): Signals the end of the race, practice session or qualifying attempt.
3. PASSING (SOLID BLUE): Signals a driver that a faster car is attempting to pass.
4. LAST LAP (WHITE): Signals that one lap remains in a race or qualifying attempt.
5. STOP (RED): Signals that the track is not safe to proceed at any speed.
6. CONSULTATION (BLACK): Signals that the driver should proceed immediately to the pit area for consultation with officials.
7. CAUTION (YELLOW): Signals that the track is not safe for racing speeds.
8. SURFACE (YELLOW AND RED STRIPE): Signals that oil, water or some other substance has made the track surface slippery.
9. DISQUALIFICATION (BLACK WITH WHITE CROSS): Signals that the driver has been disqualified.
StartS AND RESTARTS
All races begin with a rolling start. All drivers must position their cars in their proper locations in two-wide or three-wide (Indianapolis 500) alignment during the ﬁnal parade lap and must remain in position unless mechanical difﬁculty occurs. In the event that a driver drops out due to mechanical difﬁculty, the remaining cars in the ﬁeld must maintain their assigned positions unless otherwise directed by race ofﬁcials.
• Cars dropping out on the parade or pace laps may be considered cause for delaying the start.
• An ofﬁcial safety car will be used to pace the ﬁeld and will have its ﬂashing lights on during the parade and pace laps. At the appropriate time, the ﬂashing lights will be turned off, indicating the intent to start the race the next time across the starting line.
• All drivers must maintain their relative position until the green condition is declared.
Single-file restarts will be in effect at all 2022 events. Following a yellow- or red-ﬂag condition, the following procedures will be used to resume racing under green-ﬂag conditions:
• After the starter gives the “one lap to go” before return to green-flag conditions signal, cars must line up in single-file formation with no gaps or lagging between cars. For restarts with 20 laps or less remaining on short ovals, or 15 laps remaining at all other venues, cars not on the lead lap will be moved to the rear of the field.
• The leader of the ﬁeld under the yellow condition is required to maintain pace lap speed until reaching a designated point where the leader is required to accelerate smoothly back to racing speed and the green condition will be declared.
• If the leader or any other car accelerates before the restart cone, the restart may be waved off and/or cars may be penalized.
• All cars must maintain their respective track positions until the green condition is declared.
• If the leader does not accelerate at the restart point, the starter will show the green ﬂag to the ﬁeld to accelerate.
• The race director shall determine the type and timing of any penalty as deemed appropriate to the orderly conduct of the race.
Order – Qualifying order is determined by reverse order of entrant points entering the event. Teams without entrant points will be placed at the front of the order and ordered by blind draw.
Warmup laps – Each car is permitted two warmup laps prior to the timed qualification laps. INDYCAR may permit additional warmup laps if deemed necessary.
Green-flag laps – A qualification attempt consists of two consecutively timed laps. The aggregate time is recorded as the official qualifying time for the car, with the fastest aggregate time earning the pole position. For the Iowa doubleheader in July, Lap 1 will determine the car’s starting position for Race 1 while Lap 2 will determine the car’s starting position for Race 2.
Missed attempts – Each car is permitted to leave the staging pit one time only.
Indianapolis 500 Qualifying
Order – A blind draw is conducted before Day 1 qualifications.
Warmup laps – Each car is permitted two warmup laps before the timed qualification laps. The race director may permit three warmup laps if deemed necessary.
Green-flag laps – A qualification attempt consists of four timed laps. The aggregate time is recorded as the official qualifying time for the car.
Indianapolis 500 qualifying consists of two or three sessions of time trials:
First-day Qualifying, Saturday, May 21 – Determines the 33 positions in the provisional field based on the fastest four-lap averages. All entries are guaranteed at least one four-lap attempt to qualify, provided the car is properly and timely presented. No limit on the number of qualifying attempts an entry may make. At the end of the session, positions 10-30 are locked into the field.
Fast Nine Shootout, Sunday, May 22 – Sets positions 1-9 with the order based on Day 1 qualifying results from slowest to fastest. Each car gets one guaranteed attempt.
Last Chance Qualifying, Sunday, May 22 – Sets positions 31-33 with the order based on Day 1 qualifying draw and each unqualified car gets one guaranteed attempt. Once a break in the line occurs, any car that has not Qualified, is bumped from the field, or chooses to withdraw its previous Qualifications time will be permitted to make additional attempts until the time allotted for Last Chance Qualifications has expired.
Road/Street Course Qualifying
Qualifying is broken into three segments, progressively narrowing the field to determine the pole winner. Segment 1 is broken into two groups determined by the top time posted by each car in the final practice session before qualifying.
Segment 1 – Each of the two groups receives 10 minutes of track time, inclusive of full-course caution conditions, with the fastest lap by each car determining its qualifying position. The fastest six cars from each group advance to Segment 2, while the remaining cars are assigned positions 13 and back to the rear of the grid. Group 1 drivers occupy the odd-numbered positions (13, 15, 17, etc.), while Group 2 drivers occupy the even-numbered positions (14, 16, 18, etc.) based on their fastest lap times during the segment.
Segment 2 – The 12 advancing cars receive 10 minutes of track time, inclusive of full-course caution conditions, with the fastest lap by each entry determining its qualifying position. The fastest six advance to the Firestone Fast Six shootout, while the remaining six cars are ranked in positions 7-12 based on their fastest laps during the segment.
Firestone Fast Six – The six advancing cars receive six minutes of guaranteed green-flag track time. At the end of the session, the cars are ranked 1-6 based on their fastest laps during the segment.
Failure to complete all qualifying segments – If conditions prevent completion of all segments of road/ street course qualifying, the starting grid will be set according to the last completed segment. The driver recording the fastest time in the last fully completed segment will be awarded the pole position with the remainder of drivers in that group filling the odd-numbered starting positions by lap time rank and the even numbered starting positions filled by lap time rank from the other group. If no segments are completed, the starting grid will be set by entrant points entering the event or, for the first race of the season, by entrant points at the conclusion of the previous season.
Qualifying Interference – If a car causes a red-flag condition in any segment or otherwise interferes with qualifications as determined by INDYCAR, the car’s best two timed laps of the segment will be disallowed and the car shall not be allowed to advance to the next segment. If a car causes two red-flag conditions in one or more segments or otherwise interferes with qualifications as determined by INDYCAR, all segment times shall be voided and the car shall not be permitted to participate in the remainder of qualifying. If a car causes a yellow-flag condition that interferes with the attempt of another car, the violating car’s best lap during that segment will be disallowed. If the violation occurs during the Firestone Fast Six, all the car’s laps in that segment shall be voided and the car not permitted to continue in the session.
Doubleheader Race Qualifying – For doubleheader races, qualifying sessions for each race will see the field divided into two groups based on practice times, with 12 minutes of track time allotted for each qualifying group (with five minutes of guaranteed green-flag time). Qualifying groups will be based on best lap times from the practice session immediately preceding Race 1 qualifications. If a car causes a red-flag situation during a qualifying session, its best two timed laps will be disallowed and it will not be permitted to continue in the session. One driver and entrant championship point will be awarded to the fastest car in each qualifying group on both days.
Multiple detection loop antennas buried in the track surface and strategically located around the track record the passing time and identification of the radio transponder attached to each car. The information is recorded and relayed to the timing and scoring booth via a trackside decoder that is connected to each antenna. The information from the trackside decoders is processed by primary and secondary scoring computers (servers) to determine the results of the session. Data that is recorded by the scoring servers includes the results of each session, all data from the transponders passing each loop antenna and all times of predetermined sections set up in the system. The system records all times to the ten-thousandths of a second.
Timing and Scoring
A two-way radio transponder with a unique identification number is installed on the bottom of each car, 36 inches from the tip of the nose cone.
3. BACK-UP SERVERS
Several other systems are used to back up the main electronic scoring systems. A high-speed camera, which takes a picture every ten-thousandth of a second, records all start-finish line passings. Acquired in 2004 as a backup to the electronic system, the start-finish camera is used after every race to verify the finishing order of all cars. It also is used throughout the race to check close crossings. The camera played a vital role in determining the race winner at Chicagoland Speedway in 2008, when it showed Helio Castroneves edged Scott Dixon by 0.0033 of a second, even though the timing screen showed Dixon had won. In addition, two high-frame-rate cameras connected to a digital video system record video evidence of all start-finish line passings.
The scoring computers feed live timing data to each team's pit stand via the INDYCAR timing and scoring stand located in pit lane at the start/finish line. All data recorded at each race event is archived and made available to teams, manufacturers and race officials.
The system also features two-way communication availability through the car transponder. This allows INDYCAR timing and scoring the ability to send information to the car's on-board system as well as read information from it.
Inside INDYCAR Race Control
INDYCAR race control is where all facets of race organization come together to provide a safe, competitive and timely event. The race control staff utilizes a variety of video and audio monitoring, electronic data and direct communication with teams and race officials to oversee all aspects of the competition. The race director and the race stewards decide whether to review an on-track incident and whether to levy penalties against a driver or team.
Race Incident Review
The INDYCAR race director and two race stewards, located in race control, monitor all NTT INDYCAR SERIES on-track sessions for potential violations of the INDYCAR rulebook. Upon suspecting a violation has occurred, the race director or any of the stewards may call for a stewards’ review. The race director will announce that the incident is under review, with that information relayed immediately through race control communications systems to officials, teams and broadcast partners.
At that time, the two stewards will review all information available, including video replays, radio communications and time line data, to promptly reach a decision whether a rules violation was committed. A vote of the stewards determines if a rules violation did occur (voting results are not released) with the president of competition and operations or race director serving as the tiebreaker.
If a violation was determined to occur, the stewards will refer to the penalty guidelines to determine its severity. Available penalties for consideration include: a warning; pit lane drive-through; pit lane “stop and hold” for a determined amount of time; loss of position; taking a restart from the back of the field; loss of driver or entrant points; monetary fine; suspension or disqualification, and more.
Announcement of the infraction and penalty will be relayed through race control communications systems to officials, teams and broadcast partners. The race stewards will remain available following an event to explain decisions to competitors. The INDYCAR president has final say on all post-race penalties.
1. Inside Front Tire Changer: Usually one of the mechanics, the tire changer takes the tire and air gun over the wall one lap before the pit stop and is on his knees when the car arrives at 50 mph. Removes old tire and replaces with new Firestone tire in six to eight seconds. Assists with front wing adjustments.
2. Front Tire Assistant: Helps pass the tires over the wall and assists wherever he is needed. Not part of over-the-wall crew.
3. Fire Extinguisher: Uses fire extinguisher to spray a mixture of water and ColdFire on the engine cowling to wash away any spillage after the fuel hose is removed. Not part of the over-the wall crew.
4. Fueler: Fits fuel nozzle into tank opening on side of car, allowing fuel to flow into car and capturing any fumes or excess fuel.
5. Deadman/Fuel Hose Assistant: Operates springloaded lever on fuel tank that allows fuel to flow through hose into the car. Called the “Deadman” because if a fuel problem occurs, he can stop the flow of ethanol by releasing the lever. Also helps fueler balance fuel hose, keeping it level to ensure the quickest fuel flow to the car. Not part of the over-the-wall crew.
6. Airjack: Inserts airjack nozzle into airjack receptacle, which raises car for tire change.
7. Inside Rear Tire Changer: Like inside front tire changer, is in position on the lap before the pit stop. After changing the tire, helps push car out of the pit.
Anatomy Of A Pit Stop
8. Rear Tire Assistant: Passes inside rear tire over the wall. Also passes starter over the wall in the event that the car stalls. Not part of the over-the-wall crew.
9. Outside Rear Tire Changer: Unlike the other tire changers, must wait by the wall with air gun in hand. When the car pulls in, the tire changer runs around to the rear of the car, changes tire and helps push car out of pit.
10. Outside Front Tire Changer: Typically the chief mechanic, guides driver into pit stall and signals driver to stop on a mark. After changing tire, makes any necessary front-wing adjustments. Usually is responsible for signaling driver to leave pit.
11. Stop Sign/Front Air Hose: Waves stop sign up and down to signal driver to pit. As car enters pit stall, lowers stop sign to mark the optimum stopping location. Assists outside front tire changer by clearing wheel gun and air hose to prevent driver from running over while exiting the pit.
Timeline Of A Pit Stop
The pit box serves as an NTT IndyCar Series team’s race day headquarters. Typically the race engineer, race strategist and data acquisition engineer sit atop the pit box to continually monitor all incoming information and the race strategy, while a Honda or Chevrolet engineer is located in the back of the pit box overseeing the engine performance
1. Flat-screen monitors on top display the current weather and upcoming forecasts, timing and scoring data, the television broadcast and the car’s telemetry.
2. Monitors are placed on the back of the pit box for monitoring the engine.
3. Laptops are utilized by engineers to calculate fuel mileage, to pull trends and data from previous races and more.
4. Storage for team communication gear.
5. Antennas are mounted high into the air to provide good reception of radio communication and car telemetry data.
6. A camera is mounted to the antenna pole to record each pit stop for teams to review following the race.
7. A weather station is mounted to the very top of the antenna to monitor wind direction and more.
In the high-tech world of INDYCAR racing, teams employ telemetry to monitor performance and gain every possible competitive advantage. Telemetry is a radio device that relays information such as engine, tire, steering and throttle performance to team engineers in the pit box. The team can monitor car and driver activity to ensure the car is performing properly. During a race, NTT IndyCar Series teams use telemetry to gather data live from their cars as they formulate their race strategy. In the NTT IndyCar Series, teams receive their data from their own on-board systems as well as from the league’s Timing & Scoring operation.
Teams can customize their computers to display a multitude of data, including:
What Is Telemetry?
• Chassis Performance
• Tire Pressures
• Lap Times / Speeds
• Fuel Economy / Fuel Used / Fuel Remaining
• Anti-Roll Bar Position
• Max Speed
• Gear Position
• Engine-Control Module
• Cooling Systems
• Weight Jacker Position
• Gear Position
• Engine-Control Module
• Cooling Systems
• Weight Jacker Position
• Accelerometer: Device in a driver’s earpiece that measures the forces a driver’s head experiences in an impact.
• Adhesion: The maintenance of contact between two touching objects. Adhesion refers to a static condition, whereas traction (also known as “grip”) refers to a moving condition.
• Aerodynamics: As applied to racing, the study of the interaction between air and the resistance and pressures created by the passage of a moving car through the air.
• Aeroscreen: A safety innovation for enhanced driver cockpit protection that made its debut in the 2020 NTT INDYCAR SERIES season. The safety feature, which consists of a ballistic, canopy-like windshield that is anchored by titanium framework than encompasses the cockpit, is mandated for use by all teams on all track - ovals, permanent road courses and street circuits.
• Apex: The area of a turn near its center.
• Apron: The paved (and usually flat) portion of a racetrack that separates the racing surface from the infield. Generally, a concrete wall, steel guardrail or SAFER Barrier separates the apron from the infield.
• Blister: Bubbles on the surface of a tire created by overheating of the tread compound.
• Boost: Manifold intake pressure above ambient atmospheric pressure.
• Buckeye: External opening to fuel cell. Fuel hose connects securely to buckeye during refueling.
• Camber: Degree to which right-side tires lean in toward the car (from the top of the tire) and the left-side tires lean out. A useful tool to gain grip in corners by maximizing the amount of tire-to-track contact.
• Camshaft: A rotating shaft in the engine that opens and closes the engine’s intake and exhaust valves.
• Chassis: The central body of the car, including the driver’s compartment. Also referred to as the “tub.”
• Contact patch: The portion of the tire that makes contact with the racing surface. Various chassis and tire adjustments can be made to maximize the contact patch.
• Crankshaft: The rotating shaft within the engine that is turned by the up-and-down motion of the pistons. The crankshaft transfers power to the flywheel and, in turn, to the transmission. The crankshaft is housed within the crankcase, which is part of the engine block.
• Diaper: A blanket made from ballistic and absorbent material that surrounds part of the engine and serves as a containment device during accidents and engine malfunctions.
• Disc: In brakes, the rotor, the part that revolves and against which brake linings are pressed during braking.
• Displacement: In an engine, the total volume of air-fuel mixture an engine theoretically is capable of drawing into all cylinders during one operating cycle.
• Downforce: Creation of force through aerodynamics, which keeps the car stuck to the track. High-speed movement of air underneath the car creates a vacuum, while the wings on the car force it to stay on the ground, acting in a manner opposite to the wings of an airplane.
• Drafting: See “Tow.”
• Dyno: Short for “dynamometer,” a static machine used to measure an engine’s horsepower output.
• Engine block: An aluminum casting from the manufacturer that contains the crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons.
• Ethanol: Alcohol derived primarily from grain. As a clean-burning and renewable fuel that is non-toxic and 100 percent biodegradable, it reduces air pollution and improves racing’s environmental footprint. Its high octane rating delivers strong engine performance by helping engines resist detonation so they can run higher compression ratios. NTT INDYCAR SERIES cars use a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline (Speedway E85).
• “European-style” qualifying: Timed session in which all cars run on the track simultaneously to post the quickest lap. Used in NTT INDYCAR SERIES road/street qualifications.
• Frontal head restraint: A yoke-collar safety device designed to reduce extreme head motions and neck loads during high-speed impacts.
• Fuel injection: A system replacing conventional carburetion that delivers fuel under pressure into the combustion chamber of the engine (direct injection) or air flow before entering the chamber (multi-point fuel injection).
• Grip: How well the tires maintain traction through contact with the racing surface.
• Groove/line: Term for the fastest or most efficient way around the racetrack. Most drivers will use the same groove around the racetrack and that portion of the track will consequently appear darker in color than the rest of the track because of the build-up of tire rubber.
• Handling: A race car’s on-track performance determined by factors such as tire and suspension setup and other aerodynamic issues.
• Loose: Terms used to describe that rear of the car is unstable because of a lack of rear-tire grip caused by too much front downforce or not enough rear downforce. Also known as “oversteer.”
• Marbles: Excess rubber build-up above the groove on the track, the result of normal tire wear throughout the race.
• Neutral: Term used to describe the handling of the car when it is neither loose nor pushing (tight).
• Nomex: Trade name of DuPont, a fire-resistant fabric used in the manufacturing of protective clothing.
• Paddle Shift System: A pneumatic gearshift system Paddle shift system: A pneumatic gearshift system that allows the driver to keep both hands on the steering wheel during shifting by using paddles located on the back of the steering wheel to shift up and down. The paddle shift system has its own control unit that is in sync with the engine, so it knows what gear the car is in, engine RPMs and the speed of the car.
• Podium: The top three finishers in an event stand on a podium (or stage) to be recognized after the race. The winner is usually in the middle on a higher pedestal, flanked by the second- and third-place finishers.
• Probe: Nozzle that is attached to fuel hose and connects securely to buckeye during refueling.
• Pushing: Term used to describe that car does not want to turn in the corners because of a lack of tire grip. This can be caused by a lack of downforce on the front of the car or too much downforce on the rear of the car. Also known as “understeer.”
• Rev limiter: Electronic/computer device in the engine control unit that causes a controlled engine misfire if RPM exceed the limit set by INDYCAR rules. The limit is 12,000 RPM. The rev limiter is used primarily to control speeds upon entry to pit lane.
• Ride height: The distance from the bottom of the chassis to the ground when a car is at speed. INDYCAR rules stipulate that the ride height of the sides of a car should be 2 inches off the ground for all tracks.
• Short track: Racetracks that are 1 mile or less in length.
• Sidepod: Bodywork on the side of the car covering the radiators and engine exhaust. Aids in engine cooling, car aerodynamics and driver protection in the event of a side impact.
• Single-point fueling: Refueling system that utilizes one hose for fuel distribution and venting.
• Slicks: A treadless tire, used on dry surfaces. Slicks provide maximum contact with the track surface, thereby enhancing grip. In wet conditions, treaded tires are used to dissipate the water build-up between the track and the tire surfaces in order to increase grip.
• Stagger: Right rear tire is larger in diameter than left rear tire, causing the race car to naturally want to turn left, to improve turning ability on ovals.
• Sticker tires: Slang term for new tires, derived from the manufacturer sticker placed on each new tire.
• Superspeedway: An oval racetrack of 1.5 miles or more in length.
• Suspension & Wheel Energy Management System (SWEMS): Wheel-restraint system using multiple restraints attached at multiple points to a car’s chassis and suspension designed to minimize the possibility of wheel assemblies or wings becoming detached during high-speed accidents. The restraints are made of FIA-approved Zylon.
• Telemetry: A radio device that relays information such as engine, tire, steering and throttle performance from the car on track to engineers on pit lane. The team can monitor both car and driver activity to ensure the car is performing properly. Also enhances driver safety by allowing the team to notice any developing mechanical problem.
• Tight: Also known as “understeer.” A handling condition characterized by a lack of grip in the front tires. As the driver steers through a turn, the front wheels want to continue straight.
• Tire compound: A formula based on rubber polymers, oils, carbon blacks and curatives used to create a tire. The varying lengths and banking of racetracks require different compounds.
• Toe: Refers to the alignment of the front and rear tires. If tires point inward, the condition is called “toe-in.” If tires point outward, the condition is called “toe-out.” Correct toe settings are essential in order to maximize grip.
• Tow/drafting: As the race car moves around the track, it splits the air, some going over the car and some beneath. This lack of air behind the car creates a vacuum, which a trailing car may use to be pulled or “towed.”
• Turbocharger: Routes engine exhaust gases to turn a turbine, which powers a compressor that forces a greater volume of air into the engine’s intake system, thus increasing horsepower and fuel efficiency.
• Variable ratio steering rack: The primary steering mechanism of a car consisting of a metal bar with a series of evenly-spaced teeth that links to the front wheels of the car. A pinion controlled by the driver turning the steering wheel catches on the teeth of the steering rack, causing the wheels to turn. On a variable ratio steering rack, the teeth are pitched and spaced closer together at each end of the rack.
• Weight jacker: A hydraulic cylinder the driver controls to adjust car handling. The cylinder is mounted on top of a rear shock spring and compresses or extends, which transfers the car’s weight distribution from one side of the car to the other, thereby adjusting the car’s handling to the driver’s liking.
• Wicker bill: A long, narrow, removable spoiler made of steel, aluminum or carbon fiber on the trailing edge of the front and rear wings that varies in height, creating downforce. Teams will use different sized wicker bills to create more or less downforce.